Glossary of Terms
Beeswax:
Waxy material produced by worker bees . Secreted from glands, beeswax is used by the honeybee to build
honey comb. It is used by humans in drugs, cosmetics, artists' materials, furniture polish and candles.


Bee Venom
The "ouch" part of the honeybee. Although sharp pain and some swelling and itching are natural reactions to
a honeybee sting, a small percentage of individuals are highly allergic to bee venom. "Bee venom therapy" is
widely practiced overseas and by some in the USA to address health problems such as arthritis, neuralgia,
high blood pressure, high cholesterol and even MS.


Drones:
Male bees, whose main function in the colony is to fertilize the queen. Drones make up a very small
percentage of the total colony. In the Autumn drones are expelled from the hive by the female worker bees.


Foundation:
Thin sheets of beeswax imprinted with a pattern of honey comb. The beekeeper installs these sheets into
wooden frames as "starters" for the bees in making uniform combs.


Frames:
The removable wooden structures which are placed in the hive. The bees build their comb within these
frames. The removable quality allows the beekeeper to easily inspect the colony.


Hive Bodies:
The first one or two wooden boxes of the colony. The hive bodies contain the brood nest of the colony.


Honey:  
Honey is used by the bees for food all year round. There are many types, colors and flavors of honey,
depending upon its nectar source. The bees make honey from the nectar they collect from flowering trees and
plants. Honey is an easily digestible, pure food. Honey is hydroscopic and has antibacterial qualities. Eating
local honey can fend off allergies.


Larva:
The grub-like, immature form of the bee, after it has developed from the egg and before it has gone into the
pupa stage.


Nectar:
Sweet fluid produced by flowers is 60% water and 40% solids. This is collected by the bees and converted into
honey at 17 -18% moisture content.


Pollen:
Very small dust-like grain produced by flowers.  Bees collect 66 lbs of pollen per year, per hive. Pollen is  male
produced by all flowering plants for fertilization and plant embryo formation. The Honeybee uses pollen as a
food. Pollen is one of the richest and purest natural foods, consisting of up to 35% protein, 10% sugars,
carbohydrates, enzymes, minerals, and vitamins A (carotenes), B1 (thiamin), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (nicotinic
acid), B5 (panothenic acid), C (ascorbic acid), H (biotin), and R (rutine).


Pollination
Agriculture depends greatly on the honeybee for pollination. Honeybees account for 80% of all insect
pollination. Without such pollination, we would see a significant decrease in the yield of fruits and vegetables.


Propolis:
Also called "bee-glue". Collected by honeybees from trees, the sticky resin is mixed with wax to make a sticky
glue. The bees use this to seal cracks and repair their hive. It is used by humans as a health aid, and as the
basis for fine wood varnishes.


Pupa:
The immature form of the bee (following the larval stage) while changing into the adult form.


Queen:
A completely developed female bee (with functioning ovaries) who lays eggs and serves as the central focus
of the colony. There is only one queen in a colony of bees. A queen's productive life span is 2-3 years.


Royal Jelly:
The milky white secretion of young nurse bees. . The powerful, milky substance that turns an ordinary bee into
a Queen Bee. It is made of digested pollen and honey or nectar mixed with a chemical secreted from a gland
in a nursing bee's head. It is used to feed the queen throughout her life, and is given to worker and drone
larvae only during their early larval.   lt is used by some as a dietary supplement and fertility stimulant. It is
loaded with all of the B vitamins.


Super: The supplementary wooden boxes places on top of the hive body the expand the size of the colony,
and to provide for storage of surplus honey.


Supercedure:
When a colony with an old or failing queen rears a daughter to replace her.


Workers:
Completely developed female bees that do have developed ovaries and do not not normally lay eggs. They
gather pollen and nectar and convert the nectar to honey. A worker's life expectancy is only several weeks
during the active summer months. However, they can live for many months during the relatively inactive winter
period.